By Christine Ekholst
A Punishment for every felony is the 1st in-depth research of ways gender motivated Swedish medieval legislation. Christine Ekholst demonstrates how the legislations codes progressively and erratically brought ladies as attainable perpetrators for all severe crimes. The legislation exhibit that legislators not just anticipated women and men to dedicate varieties of crimes; in addition they punished women and men in several methods in the event that they have been convicted. The legislation continually stipulated various equipment of executions for women and men; whereas males have been hanged or damaged at the wheel, girls have been buried alive, stoned, or burned on the stake. A Punishment for every legal explores the history to the $64000 legislative adjustments that came about whilst girls have been made in my view liable for their very own crimes.
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Additional resources for A Punishment for Each Criminal: Gender and Crime in Swedish Medieval Law
SdmL, Byggningabalken 33 & §2. VmL, Byggningabalken 6, 28 & §3. DL, Byggningabalken 39, 48 & §2, 50. Bjärköarätten 31. MEL, Byggningabalken 33 & §1–6. MESt, Byggningabalken 16 & §1–2, 17 & §1, 18 & §1. KrL, Byggningabalken 10. ÄvgL, Rättlösabalken 9 §3. YVgL, Rättlösabalken 24. ÖgL, Byggningabalken 24 §4. VmL, Byggningabalken 28 §2. DL, Byggningabalken 48 §1. MEL, Byggningabalken 33 §6. MESt, Byggningabalken 18 §2. ÖgL, Byggningabalken 24 §6. The hiding or denial of the crime is an important aspect also in Norwegian medieval law.
33 Provisions regarding mutilation of animals are common and sometimes disturbingly detailed. 34 The frequency of these provisions reveals an ulterior aggressiveness as well as vindictiveness in the local community. These examples are hard to understand if they are not interpreted within the context of an honour culture. They all seem to assume some kind of prior infraction that has led to the determination to destroy another person’s property. Assaulting an animal seems to be a way to hurt or get back at the owner.
As such, he represented not only his wife but also eventual children, dependent relatives, and servants or thralls (slaves). This status gave him power as well as duties and responsibilities. 85 The term ‘to answer for’ must be interpreted as an expectation to act upon their behalf at court; it indicates that the master of the household was considered the defendant. It is important to note that, even though the husband was his wife’s guardian and could be considered the defendant in a court scenario, this did not automatically mean that he was supposed to pay the fines or take any other kind of punishment for her.
A Punishment for Each Criminal: Gender and Crime in Swedish Medieval Law by Christine Ekholst