By Roger Price
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Additional info for An Economic History of Modern France, 1730–1914
France: A Geographical Survey, 1969. , Exode rural et migrations interieures en France. L 'example de Ia Vienne et du Poitou-Charentes, Poitiers, 1971. , La vie rurale en basse-Auvergne au 1se siecle, 1965. , Les transports de marchandises par fer, route et eau depuis 1850, 1960. , La navigation ii vapeur sur Ia Saone et Ia Rhone, 1962. , L 'orgnisation urbaine de l'Alsace, 1960. , His to ire des transports, 1961. , 1953. , Les paysans de Ia Bourgogne du nord au demier siecle deL 'Ancien Regime, 1960.
As a result it is probable that his estimate of average movement by road in 1830 is far too high. Use of the commercial records of the railway and canal companies by contrast promises a far more accurate estimate. The following statistics, whilst indicating the great significance of railways in the extension of the market, probably underestimate this. Average distance transported (kilometres per metric tonne) 15 Road 1830 1841-44 1845-54 1855-64 1865-74 1875-84 1885-94 1895-1904 1905-13 50-60 Rail Canal 39 108 167 195 191 190 191 189 110 136 147 150 Whilst making this point, it would be unwise to underestimate the general stimulus previously provided by long-distance trade, particularly international trade.
In that year, for the first time, the tonnage transported by rail exceeded that by water. In 1851, 1,718 million tonnes were moved by water, compared to 462 million by rail, but in 1857 the relation was 1,693 million to 2,142 million. By 1866 it was 2,225 millions compared with 5,825. What was true of the northern company in these years seems to have been true of most of the others: until the 1860s extension of the network produced a sufficient increase in traffic to maintain profitability, so that until1867 receipts rose more rapidly than expenditure.
An Economic History of Modern France, 1730–1914 by Roger Price