By Lamont V. Blake
This accomplished revision is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate point textbook on antenna basics, layout, functionality research, and measurements. as well as its use as a proper path textbook, it truly is well-suited for pro education and self-study through training engineers, scientists, and technologists who wish to extend their wisdom of antennas. The booklet offers a wide insurance of antenna varieties and phenomena, for operations at very low radio frequencies, in addition to frequencies as much as these of submillimeter wavelengths. not like so much university-level antenna textbooks, studying it doesn't require earlier abilities in electromagnetic concept, refined arithmetic, or desktop programming.
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Extra resources for Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement
Note that the mathematical form of (1–13) for attenuation due to absorption is different from (1–6), which is for space attenuation. The total decibel attenuation AdB over this path is the sum of the space attenuation and the absorption attenuation, which is R AdB = 20 log 2 + γ ( R2 − R1 ) dB R1 (1–14) Thus the space attenuation depends on the ratio R2/R1, whereas the absorption attenuation depends on the difference R2 − R1. Therefore close to the source the space attenuation predominates, but at large distances from the source the absorption becomes more important, if g has a nonzero constant value.
The transmission from point P1 on the earth’s surface reaches point P3 by ﬁrst going to P2, high above Direct-path shadow region the earth, then down again to P3. As shown, it is possible to reach points well below the normal horizon line for directP3 path propagation from P1. Several means P1 of accomplishing this result are now Earth described. The original method of long-distance radio propagation around the curve of FIGURE 1–13. the earth was by reﬂection from the Beyond-the-horizon propagation path.
For any particular path there is likely to be an approximately optimum frequency at a particular time of day. Round-the-world propagation is possible by means of multiple reﬂections. The ionosphere extends from about 60 to more than 300 kilometers above the earth. ) The ionosphere continues to be a valuable means of long-distance radio propagation; but as it is subject to the vagaries of solar activity and is restricted to the lower frequencies, it has limited usefulness. Other means have therefore been sought, and found in the years following World War II.
Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement by Lamont V. Blake